Category Archives: 10 Transnational Crime

2007 Threat #10 Transnational Crime Top Centers

EIN Starting Points/Rank

INTERPOLexternal link
Interpol is the world’s largest international police organization, with 184 member countries. It facilitates cross-border police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat international crime. Interpol aims to facilitate international police co-operation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries. Site includes information on drugs & organized crime and financial & high tech crimes. 1

Transnational Crime and Corruption Centerexternal link
American University – TraCCC is the first center in the United States devoted to teaching, research, training and formulating policy advice in transnational crime, corruption and terrorism. TraCCC’s fundamental goal is to better understand the causes and scope of transnational crime and corruption and to propose well-grounded policy to reduce and eliminate these problems. 2

Transparency Internationalexternal link
The global coalition against corruption. Site includes news room, global priorities, regional pages, policy and research and publications. 3

U.N. Office on Drugs and Crimeexternal link
UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Established in 1997, UNODC has approximately 500 staff members worldwide. Its headquarters are in Vienna and it has 21 field offices as well as a liaison office in New York. UNODC relies on voluntary contributions, mainly from governments, for 90 percent of its budget. 4

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commissionexternal link
OAS-CICAD’s core mission is to strengthen the human and institutional capabilities and harness the collective energy of its member states to reduce the production, trafficking and use and abuse of drugs in the Americas. 5

The Anti-Corruption Network for Transition Economiesexternal link
ACN is a regional anti-corruption initiative that was established in 1998 by national governments, civil society organisations, and international donor agencies to promote knowledge sharing, donor co-ordination and policy dialogue in the transition economies in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. The main objective of the ACN is to assist the participating countries to strengthen their capacity to tackle anti-corruption reform and to move closer to international standards. 6

International Money Laundering Information Networkexternal link
IMoLIN, an Internet-based network assisting governments, organizations and individuals in the fight against money laundering. IMoLIN has been developed with the cooperation of the world’s leading anti-money laundering organizations Included is a database on legislation and regulation throughout the world (AMLID), an electronic library, and a calendar of events in the anti-money laundering field. Certain aspects of IMoLIN are secured and therefore not available for public use. 7

Institute of Money Laundering Prevention Officersexternal link
IMLPO, established in 2001, is a unique cross-representative forum of anti-money laundering professionals who share views, experiences and opinions of the day-to-day business of combating money laundering. Site includes latest news, conference information and recruitment agencies. 8

Gieschen Consultancyexternal link
Canada-based firm providing counterfeit intelligence reports, counterfeit research, IP protection, document security and check fraud information. 9

Computer Crime Research Centerexternal link
CCRC is a non-profit, non-governmental and scientific research organization which functions on a voluntary basis. Includes Russian and Ukrainian sister sites, links, articles, legislation by country and upcoming events. 10

Anti-Phishing Working Groupexternal link
APWG is the global pan-industrial and law enforcement association focused on eliminating the fraud and identity theft that result from phishing, pharming and email spoofing of all types. 11

419legal.orgexternal link
Provides detailed information on the Nigerian 419 scam, including background, examples of scam documents, and recommended links. 12

International Association of Asian Crime Investigatorsexternal link
Organized exclusively for members of the criminal justice community and designed to promote greater awareness and effectiveness in combating Asian criminality worldwide. Site includes links, newsletter, resources and training information. 13

Organized Crime Registryexternal link
Tripod site contains articles, links and news related to crime syndicates. Includes information on Japanese, Russian and Chinese organizations. 14

Environmental Investigation Agencyexternal link
EIA is an international campaigning organisation committed to investigating and exposing environmental crime. Since 1984, EIA has used pioneering investigative techniques all over the world to expose the impact of environmental crime and to seek lasting solutions. 15

2007 Threat #10 Transnational Crime Top Cited Authors

Author (# of articles written*, # of times cited*)

Madeleine Davis (530, 5824)
Department of Politics
Queen Mary
University of London
Mile End Road
London E1 4NS
UK

Paul Williams (613, 3063)
School of International Service
American University
4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20016-8071

Mark Shaw (200, 1491)
Human Security Branch
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Vienna International Centre
P.O. Box 500
A-1400 Vienna
AUSTRIA

Jack L. Snyder (160, 1370)
Department of Political Science
Columbia University
420 W. 118th Street
New York, NY 10027

Wolfgang Wagner (113, 629)
Peace Research Institute Frankfurt
Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung
Leimenrode 29
D-60322 Frankfurt am Main
GERMANY

Steve Russell (104, 559)
Indiana University
Wylie Hall 105
100 South Woodlawn
Bloomington , IN 47405

Ronald V. Clarke (21, 478)
School of Criminal Justice
Rutgers
23 Washington Street
Newark, NJ 07102

Michael Barnett (50, 386)
Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs
University of Minnesota
301 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Maurice Punch (24, 342)
Mannheim Centre for Criminology
London School of Economics and Political Science
Houghton Street
London WC2A 2AE
UK

Peter Gill (55, 268)
School of Social Science
Liverpool John Moores University
Clarence St. Building
Clarence St.
LIVERPOOL L3 5UG
UK

Nicole J. Jackson (47, 265)
Department of Politics and International Studies
University of Warwick
Coventry, CV4 7AL
UK

Sheldon X. Zhang (46, 253)
Department of Sociology
Mail Code: 4423
San Diego State University
5500 Campanile Drive
San Diego, CA 92182

Toni Makkai (39, 244)
Australian Institute of Criminology
GPO Box 2944
Canberra ACT 2601
AUSTRALIA

Peter R. Andreas (27, 183)
Department of Political Science
Brown University
Providence RI 02912

Ko-Lin Chin (7, 121)
School of Criminal Justice
Rutgers University
123 Washington Street
Newark, NJ 07102

Mathieu Deflem (28, 86)
Department of Sociology
Sloan College 217
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208

John Muncie (14, 107)
Department of Social Sciences
The Open University
The Open University
Walton Hall
Milton Keynes MK7 6AA
UK

H. Richard Friman (16, 61)
Department of Political Science
William Wehr Physics Room 468A
Marquette University
P.O. Box 1881
Milwaukee, WI 53233

Hazel Croall (14, 46)
Division of Sociology
Department of Government
University of Strathclyde
16 Richmond Street
Glasgow G1 1XQ
Scotland
UK

  • Note that this is the number of articles indexed in the Social SciSearch database (not a universal count of all the author’s writings.)

2007 Threat #10 Transnational Crime Top Books

Earth Threat #10: Transnational Crime

A Listmania! list by Robert David STEELE Vivas (Oakton, VA United States)
(TOP 500 REVIEWER)    (HALL OF FAME REVIEWER)
The list author says: “There are ten threats, twelve policies, and eight players other than the EU and USA that matter if we are to get a grip on our future. Each of these 30 topics is addressed at www.earth-intelligence.net, and in Amazon discussion groups being created to bring together authors and readers to form a global information sharing network that will be superior to what secret intelligence and secret government bureaucracies can put together. This is how we save Humanity and our Earth–by taking back the power over relevant information and the policies that have here-to-fore been dominated by special interests instead of ourselves, the taxpayers and end-users.”
Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy
1.  Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats are Hijacking the Global Economy by Moisés Naím
The list author says:
“This book, by the long-time chief editor of Foreign Policy magazine from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, is *the* reference.  Illicit economy is $2 trillion a year, not paying taxes, against a legal economy of between $7 and $9 trillion a year.”
$10.88   Used & New from: $4.69
4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (22 customer reviews)
Political Corruption: In Beyond the Nation State
2.  Political Corruption: In Beyond the Nation State by Robert Harris
The list author says:
“Corruption, not crime, is the first order betrayal of the public trust and interest.”
$48.57   Used & New from: $23.40
All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime (International and Comparative Criminology)
3.  All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime (International and Comparative Criminology) by Alan A. Block
The list author says:
“Wall Street made a cold call on the head of the Colombian narco-guerrillas to ask for their money.  Wall Street *lives* on the cash flow from laundered money.  Not good.  Needs to be stopped.”
$47.95   Used & New from: $38.36
3.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
Trafficking And Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, And Human Rights (Transnational Feminist Studies)
4.  Trafficking And Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives On Migration, Sex Work, And Human Rights (Transnational Feminist Studies) by Kamala Kempadoo
The list author says:
“It’s all connected.”
Used & New from: $12.70
4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
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Combating Transnational Crime: Concepts, Activities and Responses
5.  Combating Transnational Crime: Concepts, Activities and Responses by Dimitri Vlassis
The list author says:
“Phil Williams is one of the top authorities and anything by him is valuable.”
$164.93   Used & New from: $69.44
Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible
6.  Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible by Douglas Farah
The list author says:
“There you have it.”
$17.20   Used & New from: $0.01
3.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (25 customer reviews)
The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime
7.  The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime by Ernesto Savona
The list author says:
“A second important work from Phil Williams.”
$180.00   Used & New from: $32.55
Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations
8.  Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations by Peter Andreas
The list author says:
“In my view, nations should be required to bond their travelers, i.e. before a US visa is issued, the nation in question should issue a certification of the citizen as law-abiding.  That would clear up at least 80% of our problems.”
$40.00   Used & New from: $6.99
3.8 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption
9.  Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption by Margaret E. Beare
The list author says:
“I like this because it makes it clear that transnational crime could not exist without government corruption at all levels including the White House, where Dick Cheney happily presides over Brown & Root smuggling for CIA, and Halliburton’s picking of the taxpayer’s pocket.”
$39.86   Used & New from: $4.99
The Encyclopedia of International Organized Crime
10.  The Encyclopedia of International Organized Crime by Carlo DeVito
The list author says:
“Great reference.”
$24.95   Used & New from: $0.15
2.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
Global Outlaws: Crime, Money, and Power in the Contemporary World (California Series in Public Anthropology)
11.  Global Outlaws: Crime, Money, and Power in the Contemporary World (California Series in Public Anthropology) by Carolyn Nordstrom
The list author says:
“Very serious book.”
$26.37   Used & New from: $9.95
4.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (9 customer reviews)
Illicit Flows and Criminal Things: States, Borders, and the Other Side of Globalization (Tracking Globalization)
12.  Illicit Flows and Criminal Things: States, Borders, and the Other Side of Globalization (Tracking Globalization) by Willem van Schendel
The list author says:
“Another excellent perspective.”
$22.99   Used & New from: $3.85
Transnational Criminal Organizations, Cybercrime, and Money Laundering: A Handbook for Law Enforcement Officers, Auditors, and Financial Investigators
13.  Transnational Criminal Organizations, Cybercrime, and Money Laundering: A Handbook for Law Enforcement Officers, Auditors, and Financial Investigators by James R. Richards
The list author says:
“Basics but worthy as an overview.”
$105.94   Used & New from: $27.67
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
The Natashas: Inside the New Global Sex Trade
14.  The Natashas: Inside the New Global Sex Trade by Victor Malarek
The list author says:
“Many things should NOT be illegal–sex is one, marijuana is another.”
Used & New from: $4.97
4.1 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (27 customer reviews)
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Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives
15.  Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives by David Kyle
The list author says:
“This is also under Earth Threat #7: Other Atrocities which covers by name kidnapping for Saudi sex, and random kidnapping for body parts, as well as child abuse and forced sex.”
$29.00   Used & New from: $0.96
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
The Transnational Dimension of Cyber Crime and Terrorism (Hoover National Security Forum Series)
16.  The Transnational Dimension of Cyber Crime and Terrorism (Hoover National Security Forum Series) by Abraham D. Sofaer
The list author says:
“Top reference work.”
$24.95   Used & New from: $0.01
Illicit Trafficking: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)
17.  Illicit Trafficking: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues) by Robert J. Kelly
The list author says:
“As the title says.”
$55.00   Used & New from: $15.08
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
Cybercrime: The Investigation, Prosecution and Defense of a Computer-Related Crime
18.  Cybercrime: The Investigation, Prosecution and Defense of a Computer-Related Crime by Darlene Demelo Moreau
The list author says:
“Focus on computers.  Most people do not realize what a house of cards our banking system is.  Losses being concealed and folded into higher credit interest rates.”
$33.63   Used & New from: $0.01
Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice: Special Offer Edition
19.  Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice: Special Offer Edition by Philip L. Reichel
The list author says:
“Another handbook.”
$22.49   Used & New from: $6.39
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
The Drug Trade (21st Century Debates)
20.  The Drug Trade (21st Century Debates) by Louie Fooks
The list author says:
“What they don’t tell you is that CIA, FBI, and DEA are all protecting strategic level drug smugglers (e.g. Blandon, the Nicaraguan that supplied Rick Ross in Los Angeles) and also making money “off the books” for both individuals and off the books agency operations.”
Used & New from: $2.30
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The Illicit Global Economy and State Power
21.  The Illicit Global Economy and State Power by H. Richard Friman
The list author says:
“Worthy.”
$33.95   Used & New from: $2.50
The Blood Bankers: Tales from the Global Underground Economy
22.  The Blood Bankers: Tales from the Global Underground Economy by James S. Henry
The list author says:
“Fascinating.”
Used & New from: $4.98
4.9 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (15 customer reviews)
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The Policing of Transnational Protest (Advances in Criminology) (Advances in Criminology)
23.  The Policing of Transnational Protest (Advances in Criminology) (Advances in Criminology) by Donatella Della Porta
The list author says:
“Troubling.  The reality is that transnational protest is the only non-vilent alternative for bringing down neo-fascist and corrupt dictatorships.”
$130.00   Used & New from: $94.18
The Global Underworld: Transnational Crime and the United States (International and Comparative Criminology)
24.  The Global Underworld: Transnational Crime and the United States (International and Comparative Criminology) by Don Liddick
The list author says:
“US focus.”
$38.95   Used & New from: $3.13
3.5 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
Multinational Crime: Terrorism, Espionage, Drug and Arms Trafficking (Studies in Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice)
25.  Multinational Crime: Terrorism, Espionage, Drug and Arms Trafficking (Studies in Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice) by John McCullough Martin
The list author says:
“Excellent reference.”
$60.00   Used & New from: $5.14
Angels, Mobsters and Narco-Terrorists: The Rising Menace of Global Criminal Empires
26.  Angels, Mobsters and Narco-Terrorists: The Rising Menace of Global Criminal Empires by Antonio Nicaso
The list author says:
“An non-US perspective, useful.”
$26.60   Used & New from: $1.63
3.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
Asian Transnational Organized Crime
27.  Asian Transnational Organized Crime by James O. Finckenauer
The list author says:
“Even worse than Russian organized crime.”
Out of stock
Transnational Organized Crime: A Commentary on the United Nations Convention and its Protocols (Oxford Commentaries on International Law)
28.  Transnational Organized Crime: A Commentary on the United Nations Convention and its Protocols (Oxford Commentaries on International Law) by J. D. McClean
The list author says:
“Limp but the only thing we have.”
$126.08   Used & New from: $50.38
Transnational and Comparative Criminology (Criminology S.)
29.  Transnational and Comparative Criminology (Criminology S.) by James Sheptycki
The list author says:
“Helpful forthe comparative aspect.”
$67.95   Used & New from: $43.18
Global Organized Crime: Trends and Developments (Studies of Organized Crime)
30.  Global Organized Crime: Trends and Developments (Studies of Organized Crime) by Dina Siegel
The list author says:
“Grotesquely overpirced (I also publish books, they cost a penny a page in lots of 2500 or more).  Buy one per state and the hell with the publisher.”
$179.00   Used & New from: $98.95
Transnational Organized Crime: Myth, Power, and Profit
31.  Transnational Organized Crime: Myth, Power, and Profit by Emilio Viano
The list author says:
“Another international perspective.”
$25.17
Crimes of the American Nuclear State: At Home and Abroad (Northeastern Series in Transnational Crime)
32.  Crimes of the American Nuclear State: At Home and Abroad (Northeastern Series in Transnational Crime) by David Kauzlarich
The list author says:
“The US is guilty of war crimes going back fifty years, and is the most vicious of the nuclear proliferators and arms merchants, along with the other permanent members of the UN Security Council.  The US politically-appointed government is hypocrisy rampant, and the bureaucrats are passive toads.”
Used & New from: $2.00
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (Organizational Crime)
33.  Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (Organizational Crime) by Adam Edwards
The list author says:
“Another good overview.”
$196.00
Global Financial Crime: Terrorism, Money Laundering, and Off Shore Centres (Global Finance Series.)
34.  Global Financial Crime: Terrorism, Money Laundering, and Off Shore Centres (Global Finance Series.) by Donato Masciandaro
The list author says:
“Follow the money.  Time to implement digital transaction watermarks.”
$124.95   Used & New from: $84.35
Transnational threats: Blending law enforcement and military strategies
35.  Transnational threats: Blending law enforcement and military strategies
The list author says:
“First book I have seen that understands that there needs to be a blending.  Some countries have gendarme, a combination, but we need to do this internationally, especially with respect to broad area surveillance, interdiction offshore, and command, control, communications, and inteligence.”
Used & New from: $11.59
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Transnational Organized Crime in the West African Region
36.  Transnational Organized Crime in the West African Region by United Nations
The list author says:
“Africa has been destroyed by the West, and crime is often the best path to success.  Why rish being genocided?”
Out of stock
Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas
37.  Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett
The list author says:
“75% of the planet is ungovernanble water.”
$12.48   Used & New from: $0.01
4.1 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (31 customer reviews)
Maritime Terror: Protecting Your Vessel and Your Crew Against Piracy
38.  Maritime Terror: Protecting Your Vessel and Your Crew Against Piracy by Jim Gray
The list author says:
“Handbook,  Start thinking about electrified nets 10 feet below the handrail, lock-downs, and tear-gas dispersal on deck and all around the ship.”
Used & New from: $0.62
2.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
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The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China
39.  The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China by Andrew Mertha
The list author says:
“Then there is intellectual piracy.”
$20.50   Used & New from: $5.30
4.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
Piracy, Maritme Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits (Iias/Iseas Series on Maritime Issues and Piracy in Asia)
40.  Piracy, Maritme Terrorism and Securing the Malacca Straits (Iias/Iseas Series on Maritime Issues and Piracy in Asia) by Graham Gerard Ong-Webb
The list author says:
“The single worst spot on the planet, but Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia are a formidable triumverate and I trust them to take care of their local problem.”
$41.93   Used & New from: $37.35

2007 Threat #10 Transnational Crime Forecast

PDF:  10 TransnationalCrime

THREAT:  Transnational Crime

The only real sign of a recession is when the Mafia starts laying off judges in New Jersey.  – Anon. / Traditional

Estimates vary widely on the value of transnational organized crime (TOC) — the FBI uses an estimate of $1 trillion per year. A key instrument in addressing TOC world-wide is the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of September 2003 which commits signatories to introduce a range of measures such as the creation of domestic criminal offences, frameworks for multilateral juristic and police cooperation, and extradition.* The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) finds that TOC groups commonly comprise 20-50 persons involved in 5 or more countries. UNODC has defined five TOC typologies – standard hierarchy, regional hierarchy, clustered hierarchy, core group, criminal network – that move beyond the mob boss model to the reality of actual groups. This is useful for tactical purposes and helps agencies achieve a common vocabulary.

TOC has diversified from traditional domains of local mob crime — “numbers racket”, protection, prostitution, and illicit drugs – to take full commercial advantage of globalized markets and the internet. The same network that moves drugs across the world can be adapted to transfer arms, explosives, cash, or untaxed tobacco. Organised Immigration Crimes – people smuggling, human trafficking – can move illegal immigrants, sex slaves, criminals or terrorists across the world. TOC moves into areas of petty crime when the rewards are sufficient, displacing local petty criminals or recruiting them (stolen motor vehicle). In this way TOC underpins much local crime. Similarly, TOC moves into new profitable areas such as identity theft, phishing, intellectual property crime (fake/unlicensed brands), cultural property crime (smuggling of artifacts), and environmental crime (illegal dumping, wildlife smuggling, illegal logging and, soon, water theft). TOC also enables other illegal activities by supply of false documents, protection, assassinations, and (in the UK) hire of weapons for criminal activity by other parties. TOC activities lend themselves to high degrees of product integration and vertical and/or horizontal integration – enslaved sex-workers or foot-soldiers are often addicted to the drugs traded by the same criminal enterprise.

But any mutation of TOC uses the traditional tools – suborning of officials, violence and coercion, secrecy, and willingness to break laws. Common to all activities is cash which is paramount in unlawful transactions. This creates a continual need for money-laundering for conversion into real assets such as property, legitimate businesses or laundered (seemingly lawful) cash.

TOC activity comprises a multitude of criminal acts, but agencies must focus on the enabling organization. To make a conviction for a single crime will often be counter-productive. TOC groups have such organizational and financial depth that they generally survive the neutralization of individual members. Also any minor agency success may merely teach the TOC how to improve its operations. Hence intelligence and counter-intelligence are crucially important, as is proactive policing rather than reactive policing instinctive to compliance officers. Compliance agencies must adapt to the changing methods and interests of TOC sometimes by reinventing themselves. In the UK the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) was launched in April 2006, bringing together the National Crime Squad, the National Criminal Intelligence Service, and elements of Customs and Immigration that dealt with TOC. In the US, the FBI Organized Crime Program addresses TOC in geographic units such as La Cosa Nostra and Italian Organized Crime, Asian Criminal Enterprises. Some in the UK envy the US RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations) Act, purpose-built anti-racketeering legislation introduced in 1964, but others fear the slippery slope of legislation based on a guilty until proven innocent principle. One successful example of new structures for new challenges is Europol, established in 1999  with intelligence and proactive policing functions (not to be confused with Interpol, which has served as a documentation exchange since establishment in 1923).

Philosophically it is legality itself that is one enabler of TOC which can only operate in illegal (“black market”) environment. Alcohol prohibition created the speak-easy which became a revenue stream for organized crime. States such as Netherlands that license rather than outlaw prostitution and some drugs have eradicated criminal revenue, and the cost of law enforcement, in those commodities.

UNODC and others have emphasized the global nexus between corruption, terrorism and crime; for instance, “terrorists” may buy illicit weapons or materials from transnational syndicates with global reach and know-how. This nexus is crucial but must include aspects of aid and foreign affairs. Officials who are found corrupt in diversion of foreign aid are more easily suborned by TOC. North Korea’s strategic counterfeiting of $100 super-notes finds obvious synergies with money laundering and other TOC activity. In the Philippines it is now difficult to distinguish between separatist raising funds and simple crime in actions such as kidnapping for ransom. Also in the Philippines a numbers racket (jueteng) is so wide spread as to have implicated the husband of President Arroyo.
The reality is that Transnational Organized Crime is a fifth estate (and fifth column) just as dangerous as any perceived terror from Islamic fundamentalism.

Near-Term:

Governments that are them-selves not directly involved in TOC are easily impressed of the need for enforcement by the loss of revenue. In fighting for elusive budgets this is effective enough but it misses that point that TOC suborns and perverts the Rule of Law itself. Just as some argue that “terrorism” is a political and policing issue rather than military, key politicians and officials need to recognise that TOC is not just a police or revenue matter but subversion just as dangerous as any bombing to the health of a society.

Mid-Term:

Much good work has been done by UNODC and others on the metrics and topology of TOC but largely within the silo of compliance agencies. A better, more revealing picture may come from coordination between these agencies and diplomatic and security intelli-gence agencies. Demarcation between many insurgencies and mere criminal activity may become clearer. Also, the direct role of states such as North Korea in TOC may be better understood through an exchange of information from political as well as policing silos.

Long-Term:

As robber barons (core nominals) amass greater wealth across generations and become firmly entrenched behind legitimate businesses or in distant countries, TOC will be seen as truly a world-wide fifth estate. The laws and practices of first the tiniest and then larger nations will be suborned as mere tools and fronts for a sinister force ultimately more deadly than the minority views of Osama bin Laden. In one dimension, a policy of zero- tolerance is needed; in another legalization of those things that make TOC possible.