Category Archives: 06 Genocide

2007 Threat #06 Genocide Top Cited Authors

Author (# of articles written*, # of times cited*)

Robert J. Sternbergexternal link (369, 6271)
Dean, School of Arts and Sciences
Tufts University
Medford, MA 02155

Paul D. Williamsexternal link (672, 3203)
Elliott School of International Affairs
George Washington University
1957 E Street, NW
Washington DC, 20052

Jerome Lewisexternal link (504, 3074)
London School of Economics and Political Science
University of London
Houghton Street
London WC2A 2AE
UK

Adam Jonesexternal link (652, 2361)
27-900 43rd Ave
Vernon BC V1T 9C8
Canada

John L. Haganexternal link (183, 2025)
Department of Sociology
Northwestern University
1810 Chicago Ave
Evanston, IL 60208

Michael Harris Bondexternal link (119, 1605)
Department of Psychology
Chinese University of Hong Kong
3rd Floor, Sino Building
Shatin, N.T.
Hong Kong
CHINA

Martin Shawexternal link (200, 1491)
Department of International Relations
University of Sussex
Sussex House
Brighton BN1 9RH
UK

Jack Snyderexternal link (160, 1370)
Department of Political Science
Columbia University
2960 Broadway
New York, NY 10027-6902

Ervin Staubexternal link (40, 1318)
Department of Psychology
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003

Phil Clarkexternal link (186, 1170)
Transitional Justice Institute
University of Ulster
Shore Road
Newtownabbey BT37 0QB
UK

Donald G. Duttonexternal link (56, 1144)
Department of Psychology
University of British Columbia
2329 West Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
CANADA

Robert H. Batesexternal link (67, 1111)
John F. Kennedy School of Government
CGIS Knafel Bldg.
Harvard University
1737 Cambridge St
Cambridge MA 02138

Michael A. Freemanexternal link (163, 1106)
Department of Government
University of Essex
Wivenhoe Park
Colchester, CO4 3SQ
UK

Dan Stoneexternal link (119, 966)
Department of History
Royal Holloway
University of London
Egham Hill
Egham TW20 0EX
UK

Sally Falk Mooreexternal link (65, 886)
Department of Anthropology
350 William James Hall
Harvard University
33 Kirkland St
Cambridge MA 02138

Eric B. Larsonexternal link (165, 798)
Department of Health Services
University of Washington
1730 Minor Ave, Ste 1600
Seattle, WA 98101

Charles Turnerexternal link (149, 729)
Social Theory Centre
Room R2.26
University of Warwick
Coventry CV4 7AL
UK

René Lemarchandexternal link (42, 442)
Professor Emeritus
University of Florida
PO Box 6120
Gainesville, FL 32611-6120

Eugene B. Brodyexternal link (152, 424)
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
The Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital
6501 N. Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21285-6815

Michael N. Barnettexternal link (50, 386)
Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs
Room 261 HHHCtr
University of Minnesota
301 19th Ave S
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Samantha Powerexternal link (64, 356)
John F. Kennedy School of Government
Harvard University
79 J F Kennedy St
Cambridge MA 02138

Manus I. Midlarskyexternal link (40, 330)
Department of Political Science
Rutgers University
89 George Street
New Brunswick, NJ 08901

Scott Strausexternal link (166, 281)
Department of Political Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
222 North Hall
1050 Bascom Mall
Madison, WI 53706

  • Note that this is the number of articles indexed in the Social SciSearch database (not a universal count of all the author’s writings.

2007 Threat #06 Genocide Top Books

Earth Threat #6: Genocide

A Listmania! list by Robert David STEELE Vivas (Oakton, VA United States)
(TOP 500 REVIEWER)    (HALL OF FAME REVIEWER)
The list author says: “There are ten threats, twelve policies, and eight players other than the EU and USA that matter if we are to get a grip on our future. Each of these 30 topics is addressed at www.earth-intelligence.net, and in Amazon discussion groups being created to bring together authors and readers to form a global information sharing network that will be superior to what secret intelligence and secret government bureaucracies can put together. This is how we save Humanity and our Earth–by taking back the power over relevant information and the policies that have here-to-fore been dominated by special interests instead of ourselves, the taxpayers and end-users.”
How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen
1.  How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen by John G. Heidenrich
The list author says:
“THE best book on the topic.  Disclosure: he worked for me and was the genius behind our reporting on Genocide to the Department of State, a program closed as soon as George Bush “Rwandi is not our concern” Bush came into office.”
$65.65   Used & New from: $6.45
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda
2.  We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda by Philip Gourevitch
The list author says:
“This is the top book for the general reader.”
$10.88   Used & New from: $0.01
4.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (254 customer reviews)
The New Craft of Intelligence: Personal, Public, & Political--Citizen's Action Handbook for Fighting Terrorism, Genocide, Disease, Toxic Bombs, & Corruption
3.  The New Craft of Intelligence: Personal, Public, & Political–Citizen’s Action Handbook for Fighting Terrorism, Genocide, Disease, Toxic Bombs, & Corruption by Robert David Steele
The list author says:
“I guess I will include my book since I do have a chapter on genocide courtesy of Dr. Greg Stanton.  Go to www.genocidewatch.org for his original information.  You can also search my website OSS.Net for genocide and get to the free online version of the book.”
$24.95   Used & New from: $3.94
4.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (9 customer reviews) | 1 customer discussion
Long Shadows: Truth, Lies and History
4.  Long Shadows: Truth, Lies and History by Erna Paris
The list author says:
“I like this.  People underestimate the innate grasp of history embedded in culture.  Like a cancer, memories that could lead to a return of genocidal impulses need to be brought out in Truth and Reconciliation Commissions.”
Used & New from: $0.01
4.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (7 customer reviews)
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Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
5.  Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda by Roméo Dallaire
The list author says:
“See my longer review, and also the book by John Heidenrich (#1 on this list) and the web site of Dr. Greg Stanton (www.genocidewatch.org).  This officer nearly lost his mind because of UN, US, Canadian, and European indifference to a genocide he knew he could have prevented.”
$13.59   Used & New from: $0.89
4.6 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (102 customer reviews)
When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda
6.  When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda by Mahmood Mamdani
The list author says:
“Useful.  Israel is genociding the Palestinians, and most Israelis and American Jews simply don’t “see” that.”
$20.31   Used & New from: $10.99
4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (8 customer reviews)
Death by Government
7.  Death by Government by R. J. Rummel
The list author says:
“Compelling.”
$28.75   Used & New from: $25.00
4.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (18 customer reviews) | 1 customer discussion
American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World
8.  American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World by David E. Stannard
The list author says:
“Genocide on our Native Americans.”
$16.47   Used & New from: $6.46
4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (58 customer reviews) | 1 customer discussion
A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present
9.  A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas 1492 to the Present by Ward Churchill
The list author says:
“Bingo.  Winston Churchill, whose mother was born in America, was enormously ashamed and angry about the genocide of the Native Americans as the Easterners marched west.”
$13.57   Used & New from: $3.82
4.6 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (27 customer reviews) | 1 customer discussion
War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (Critical Issues in World and International History)
10.  War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (Critical Issues in World and International History) by Doris L. Bergen
The list author says:
“Not as big as the genocide of the Native Americans (north and south), but the biggest in recent memory.”
Used & New from: $1.05
4.5 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (15 customer reviews)
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Pol Pot: Anatomy of a Nightmare
11.  Pol Pot: Anatomy of a Nightmare by Philip Short
The list author says:
“World-class genocide.  I am waiting for the Jewish holocaust museum to acknowledge in depth all other gencoides.  See www.genocidewatch.org for the eight stages of genocide and a complete list of genocides today and back in time.”
$16.50   Used & New from: $5.97
3.9 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (38 customer reviews)
The Knock at the Door: A Mother's Survival of the Armenian Genocide
12.  The Knock at the Door: A Mother’s Survival of the Armenian Genocide by Margaret Ajemian Ahnert
The list author says:
“Diversity matters.  We are destroying cultures, languages, peoples, states, and of course animal and plant diversity at the most reckless rate one can imagine.  I am not including all the books on the various genocides, there would be too many to chose from.”
$24.95   Used & New from: $0.25
4.6 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (38 customer reviews)
Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence
13.  Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence by Martha Minow
The list author says:
“Useful.  See also Truth Commissions.”
$18.00   Used & New from: $2.63
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism
14.  The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism by Stefan Kühl
The list author says:
“Extremely important work.  Henry Kissinger is on record as favoring eugenics around the world, and Karl Rove and Otto Reich are what we get in the White House when we don’t pay attention.”
$29.47   Used & New from: $11.05
3.5 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
"Complicity With Evil": The United Nations in the Age of Modern Genocide
15.  “Complicity With Evil”: The United Nations in the Age of Modern Genocide by Adam LeBor
The list author says:
“We are all complicit.”
$25.00   Used & New from: $2.63
4.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews) | 1 customer discussion
Killing in the Name of Identity: A Study of Bloody Conflicts
16.  Killing in the Name of Identity: A Study of Bloody Conflicts by Vamik D. Volkan
The list author says:
“Very useful.  Education should create identiies that do not murder.  Ralph Peters has written on this brilliantly–civil wars and genocides are often fueled by a few smart leaders mobilizing illiterates whose only path to women, wine, and wealth is though a weapon.”
$29.95   Used & New from: $19.00
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing
17.  Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller
The list author says:
“Basic reference.”
Used & New from: $11.75
4.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (15 customer reviews)
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A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation
18.  A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation by Eric D. Weitz
The list author says:
“Visualization always helps.”
$18.71   Used & New from: $9.00
3.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
A Plague upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation
19.  A Plague upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan’s Germ Warfare Operation by Daniel Barenblatt
The list author says:
“Japan, Germany, China, Russia, and the USA have all committed atrocities or helped other commit atrocities (e.g. USA provided means for Saddam Hussein to try genocide on the Kurds and the Iranians).”
Used & New from: $0.16
4.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (12 customer reviews)
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Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction
20.  Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction by Adam Jones
The list author says:
“I am waiting for Dr. Greg Stanton’s book, but in the meantime, this one seems to be the top overview.”
Used & New from: $7.11
3.5 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
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Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda
21.  Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda by Scott Peterson
The list author says:
“I like this.”
$35.86   Used & New from: $0.67
4.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (27 customer reviews)
The Disaster Gypsies: Humanitarian Workers in the World's Deadliest Conflicts (Praeger Security International)
22.  The Disaster Gypsies: Humanitarian Workers in the World’s Deadliest Conflicts (Praeger Security International) by John Norris
The list author says:
“Worthy aspect.  Doctors Without Borders does what it can, but the world needs a global peace army with a strong civil affairs brigade.”
$44.95   Used & New from: $21.49
4.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
The AIDS War: Propaganda, Profiteering, and Genocide from the Medical Industrial Complex
23.  The AIDS War: Propaganda, Profiteering, and Genocide from the Medical Industrial Complex by John Lauritsen
The list author says:
“Not all medical companies are evil, but most are wreaking havoc on humanity.”
$20.00   Used & New from: $15.67
3.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
Mass Hate: The Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (Revised and Updated)
24.  Mass Hate: The Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (Revised and Updated) by Neil Jeffrey Kressel
The list author says:
“This book helps emphasize the need for a global free educational program that is available via cell phone on demand in all languages (“how do I…”).  Mass hate emerges when there is a concentration of wealth and a plethora of poverty, infectuous disease, shortfalls in water and energy, and so on.”
$19.00   Used & New from: $0.01
4.8 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
Chosen People from the Caucasus: Jewish Origins, Delusions, Deceptions and Historical Role in the Slave Trade, Genocide and Cultural Colonization
25.  Chosen People from the Caucasus: Jewish Origins, Delusions, Deceptions and Historical Role in the Slave Trade, Genocide and Cultural Colonization by Michael Anderson Bradley
The list author says:
“I can just hear them screaming in the synagogues that this book is a lie, a great lie, just like the claims that Israel attacked and murdered the crew of the USS Liberty.”
Used & New from: $249.99
3.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (7 customer reviews)
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Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide
26.  Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide by Alexander Laban Hinton
The list author says:
“Useful perspective.”
$28.53   Used & New from: $4.83
4.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
Encyclopedia of Genocide (2 Volumes)
27.  Encyclopedia of Genocide (2 Volumes) by Israel W Charny
The list author says:
“Wow.”
Used & New from: $21.76
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Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide
28.  Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide by George E. Tinker
The list author says:
“Religions do practice genocide!  Catholic, Jew, Islam, and Pentecostals.”
$20.69   Used & New from: $9.47
4.2 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
The Man Who Invented Genocide: The Public Career and Consequences of Raphael Lemkin
29.  The Man Who Invented Genocide: The Public Career and Consequences of Raphael Lemkin by James Joseph Martin
The list author says:
“Fascinating.”
Used & New from: $4.95
3.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (5 customer reviews)
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The Graves Are Not Yet Full Race, Tribe And Power In The Heart Of Africa
30.  The Graves Are Not Yet Full Race, Tribe And Power In The Heart Of Africa by Bill Berkeley
The list author says:
“Worthy.”
Used & New from: $0.01
3.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (32 customer reviews)
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The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance (Race and Resistance)
31.  The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance (Race and Resistance) by M. Annette Jaimes
The list author says:
“Also worth a look.”
Used & New from: $0.01
4.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
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Some Call It Aids--I Call It Murder: The Connection Between Cancer, AIDS, Immunizations, And Genocide
32.  Some Call It Aids–I Call It Murder: The Connection Between Cancer, AIDS, Immunizations, And Genocide by Dr. Eva Lee Snead MD
The list author says:
“I consider this worthy of note.  The medical industry kills more people than it helps, and the food industry is rapidly catching up with them.  The medical industry does not want women to know they can cure breast cancel with a simple inexpensive oil.  Now THAT is an atrocity rather than genocide, but the point matters.”
Used & New from: $27.44
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2007 Threat #06 Genocide Top Centers

EIN Starting Points/Rank

Genocide Studies Projectexternal link
The GSP at Yale conducts research, seminars and conferences on comparative, interdisciplinary, and policy issues relating to the phenomenon of genocide, and provides training to researchers from afflicted regions. Includes information on ancient and colonial genocides, 20th century genocides, maps and satellite images and publications. In several languages. 1

Web Genocide Documentation Centerexternal link
University of the West of England – The resources made available here, or linked to, are those that focus on some of the most important twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences. A major emphasis is on the provision of primary materials relating to such occurrences. 2

Committee on Conscienceexternal link
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum site – The Committee’s mandate is to alert the national conscience, influence policy makers, and stimulate worldwide action to confront and work to halt acts of genocide or related crimes against humanity. In carrying out its mandate, the Committee uses a wide range of actions, including public programs and activities, temporary exhibitions and public or private communications with policy makers. It seeks to work whenever possible with other governmental and non-governmental organizations. 3

Genocide Watchexternal link
Washington, DC-based – Genocide Watch is the Coordinating organization of The International Campaign to End Genocide (ICEG), an international coalition of organizations. The ICEG aims to educate the general public and policy makers about the causes, processes, and warning signs of genocide; to create the institutions and political will to prevent and stop genocide; and to bring perpetrators of genocide to justice. 4

IDEAexternal link
A journal of social issues, is a peer-reviewed electronic journal created for the exchange of ideas related mainly, to cults, mass movements, autocratic power, war, genocide, democide, holocaust, and murder. 5

Inforceexternal link
International Forensic Centre of Excellence for the Investigation of Genocide – The Inforce Foundation was born out of the collective experience of a group of forensic specialists active in the investigation of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide since the mid 1990s. Between us, Inforce personnel have worked for, and with a multiplicity of national and international organisations (government and NGOs) initiating and undertaking such work. This growing body of expertise is set against the fact that approximately 203 million citizens, were unlawfully slaughtered by governments in the twentieth century. Funded by Bournemouth University. 6

Society for Threatened Peoplesexternal link
Germany-based – an independent human rights organisation. Provides interactive map of threatened peoples, press center, publications, donation and campaign information. Also reports on U.N. and EU Council work. In several languages. 7

Freedom, Democide, Warexternal link
University of Hawaii – Site focuses on democide, murder by government. In depth site provides statistics, documents, photo and links on the topic. 8

Darfur Genocideexternal link
This site’s sole purpose is to try to save lives by helping stop the genocide in Darfur. Includes latest news, donation information and info & analysis. 9

Gendercide Watchexternal link
Is a project of the Gender Issues Education Foundation (GIEF), a registered charitable foundation based in Edmonton, Alberta. This site includes a constantly growing data-base of case-studies and other research materials on gendercide, defined as gender selective mass killing. 10

Bystanders to Genocideexternal link
This website catalogues the public statements of U.S. politicians on the genocide in Darfur, and compares what they are saying, to what they are actually doing. It is our hope that you will use this information to urge those in public office to take meaningful action to stop the genocide, and to hold your leaders accountable should they choose to do nothing. Also provides latest information on Darfur and suggestions for action. 11

Crimes of War Projectexternal link
A collaboration of journalists, lawyers and scholars dedicated to raising public awareness of the laws of war and their application to situations of conflict. Goal is to promote understanding of international humanitarian law among journalists, policymakers, and the general public, in the belief that a wider knowledge of the legal framework governing armed conflict will lead to greater pressure to prevent breaches of the law, and to punish those who commit them. 12

Institute for the Study of Genocide – International Association of Genocide Scholars
The ISG exists to promote and disseminate scholarship and policy analyses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of genocide. The International Association of Genocide Scholars is a global, interdisciplinary, non-partisan organization that seeks to further research and teaching about the nature, causes, and consequences of genocide, and advance policy studies on prevention of genocide. Chartered by the University of the State of New York. 13

War Crimes Research Officeexternal link
American University College of Law – The WCRO was initially established to provide the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR) with legal research and analysis in the areas of humanitarian and international criminal law. To date, the WCRO has completed more than 70 projects, to include cases in East Timor and Cambodia. 14

Minorities at Riskexternal link
A University of Maryland-based research project that monitors and analyzes the status and conflicts of politically-active communal groups in all countries with a current population of at least 500,000. MAR tracks 284 politically-active ethnic groups throughout the world from 1945 to the present — identifying where they are, what they do, and what happens to them. MAR focuses specifically on ethnopolitical groups, non-state communal groups that have “political significance” in the contemporary world because of their status and political actions. 15

2007 Threat #06 Genocide Forecast

PDF:  06 Genocide

THREAT:  Genocide

The distinction between war and genocide is a modern one. Throughout history, a lost battle often meant genocide for an entire population. In more modern times, most conflicts — certainly not all — have been about political suzerainty and control of resources. That said, the finger has never been far from the trigger of leaving alive nothing that breatheth – the Japanese in Nanking, Germany in Russia, Russia in Germany, and some isolated cases in every war by all armies since. Since 1945, over seventy million people have been killed in at least 55 genocides and systematic political killings.* Most of these people have been killed by their own governments.

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 (entry into force 12 January 1951) following the systematic slaughter by the German Third Reich. The Convention defines genocide as any act – whether during war or not –committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: Since some States refuse extradition for political crimes, the Convention specifically states that acts of genocide may not be classed as political crimes for the purpose of extradition. The full scope of acts constituting genocide is not widely known – (Article 2) killing, serious bodily or mental harm, inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction, imposing measures intended to prevent births; transferring children of the group to another group. In short, genocide is not just mass murder with racial motivation. It starts not with the act of killing but with the act of differentiation and then any acts that disadvantage that differentiated group.

This clearer understanding of genocide (as defined in the Convention) shows where the term is often misused. It explains why the UN has seemed to vacillate over Darfur. If the circumstances show that a group is being massacred not because of who they are but because of where they are living (consuming precious water resources perhaps) the label of genocide may not apply. Media may be vociferously critical of this but that is to miss the point and the true strength of the Convention. Mass murder is unlawful in all circumstance, in time of war or not and such acts are no less actionable for not falling within the Convention. The true power of the convention is to make unlawful acts which were policy of even Western governments in recent generations. The conditions of life provisions (as well as killing) would apply to in numerous cases to the treatment of Amerindians in North and South America; the transferring children provision would apply in many colonized places with indigenous populations (the “Lost Generation” cases in Australia). Similarly, the Convention probably applies to China’s “cultural genocide” in Tibet.

Differentiation (discrimination) is the key; not killing. Article 3 describes punishable acts, apart from acts of genocide, to include conspiracy, incitement, attempt, and complicity to commit genocide. Because the Convention requires signatories to promulgate local legislation against applicable acts, several developed nations have instituted racial vilification legislation. In some places this has led to absurd extremes of political correctness.

Genocide-Watch has done much work in this area and its lobbying contributed to creation of an office of Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide in the UN in July 2004. The first occupant, Juan E. Méndez of Argentina, has a staff of two. Though this initiative is laudable, lobbyist say little will be achieved without an arms-and-legs component, a Genocide Prevention Center, which would collect and analyze. Genocide-Watch has produced a predictive model based on The Eight Stages of Genocide characterized as classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination, denial. A collection and analysis center would use models such as this to feed a threats and  warnings system. But member states – for reasons best known to them and suspected by others — continue to deny UN agencies the independent intelligence function such a Center would need.

Ethnic cleansing, forced relocation, systematic privation all have roots in identification (classification) of a group as somehow inferior or hostile. Examples abound — the Turkish massacre and deportation of Armenians, the German deportation and massacre of Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, and others, Japan in China, Italy in Ethiopia, Hutu / Tutsi in Burundi and Rwanda, various massacres in former Yugoslavia. Possibly the list also includes Indonesia in East Timor and Sudan in Darfur but it would probably not include the killing fields of Cambodia which claimed two million lives, 30% of the population, because victims were of no particular group but each and every person an apocalyptic regime saw as a threat. This is one of the capricious consequences of the concept of genocide – the trivializing of non-genocidal mass slaughter, politicide as it is sometimes called. The disappeared of Latin America should bring as much outrage and retribution as any genocide.

The only authority the UN has is ceded to it by member states. Many see little reason to be optimistic that member states, and the even more problematic Security Council, will overcome their “idolatry of national sovereignty” sufficiently to authorize and implement the necessary mechanisms for fast, authoritative, and forceful intervention in genocide events. The UN is routinely blamed for being slow, indecisive, or incompetent but that, failing proof to the contrary, is a function of member states. Chapter VII of the UN Charter sets out the UN Security Council’s powers to maintain international peace and security. The Council can declare Chapter VII to be applicable to an issue such as a process of genocide and (under Article 42) may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Security Council has not yet used these peace-making powers to prevent or stop genocide.
*some factual material is from http://www.genocidewatch.org

Near-Term:

Populations need to be taught that there are more sins in the world than genocide. In the modern connected world, genocide in fact is the most easy of high crimes to identify and, more importantly, to foresee and prevent. By contrast arbitrary serial killing by the State – politicide, democide, extra-judicial killing – is far more difficult to foresee and track and thus a more deadly threat. Charges and rumors of these acts should be taken just as seriously as genocide. Similarly race crimes appearing in Germany, UK and other parts of Europe are obvious warnings of a deep, perhaps intractable political problem.

Mid-Term:

The underpinning immorality behind genocide is collective punishment – persecution of a group for perceived shortcomings of a few. Some would claim that Israel’s recent action in Lebanon and wide allied netting in Afghanistan are examples of collective punishment and that perception does nothing to uphold global moral standards. By contrast, the US has resisted profiling in its Homeland Security efforts but this almost certainly will be to its cost which may bring a popular racial backlash that will undo any laudable motives. Classification – associated with respectful treatment –for clear and present national security reasons would be specifically permitted under the Covenant on Human Rights.

Long-Time:

Globalization is bringing a time of the greatest immigration and ethnic mixing ever experienced. Although Man is a great trader he also seems to wired for distrusting strangers. Even if States are convinced that genocide (any arbitrary murder) is a perfidy, their populations may take longer to convince. It will be increasingly necessary to educate populations — from Sesame Street to the Senate – that global admixture is here to stay and that discrimination, collective punishment, race-based vilification or violence will come to no good. Genocide is just the tip of that iceberg.